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Windows 98©
 Orientation Guide provided by:

In this Installation & Orientation Guide, we'll help you to understand the features of
Windows 95/98 operating system and configure your system for peak performance.

This page contains info on Windows 98


Windows 98 Installation & Setup Tips Windows 98 Multimedia"How To" Tips
Windows 98 Troubleshooting Tips Windows 98 "How To" Tips
Windows 98 Second Edition How-To Guide Windows 98 Second Edition Readme Files
Glossary of Terms For Win95/98 From A to Z Microsoft and Windows Search Engine Tips and Tricks Absolute Windows Information


Windows Hardware Driver Updates Collection DirectX Home for Windows
Looking for DLL files ? Then Click Here Device Driver Downloads
Windows Media Player 7  Windows 98 SE Shutdown Fix 

This document has been expanded to include orientation information for Windows 3.1 users and others
unfamiliar with 32-bit versions of Windows. See our Orientation Guide provided below or visit Microsoft's web site at for more info on Windows 98 or Windows 98 Second Edition.

Section 1
What's New
Windows 2000 Windows 98 Second Edition

     New Features: The most obvious new feature of Windows 98 is its so-called Active Desktop, which
     integrates the Internet Explorer 4.0 web browser into the Windows environment. Of course, IE 4.0 is already
     available as a free add-on for Windows 95 and NT 4.0 systems, so this is not the most compelling reason to
     upgrade for existing IE4 users. However, based on our tests of prerelease code, Microsoft's claims that the     final
     release of Windows 98 will provide better Active Desktop performance than the Win95 add-on version appear
     to be true (despite the fact that preliminary Win98 benchmarks suggest that its graphics subsystem performance
     and bus throughput speeds are a little lower than those of Windows 95). The OS boots faster; Internet Explorer
     and Outlook both loaded more quickly than they did in Win95, plug-and-play hardware detection is much
     faster, and the new OS' optimization scheduler that automatically rearranges the disk-block arrangement your
     frequently used programs is likely to further boost application load times for most users. It significantly improved
     the loading speed of Microsoft Word 97 and other applications on our test system. For some users, this will be
     a big benefit. For others, cutting load time 30 percent (e.g., from 10 seconds to 7), won't matter much.

Hardware Support

                                                           Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP)
                                                           FireWire (IEEE 1394)USB devices
                                                           ACPI-compliant notebook or desktop systems
                                                           Computer/TV integration
                                                           Device Bay
                                                           Multiple Monitors (pictured here)etc.

     Win98 improves support for scanners (especially SCSI "C" and "P" series models from Hewlett-Packard),
     fonts, 3D accelerators, sound, color management of scanners, printers and displays, and networking functions.
     Further, Microsoft promises to reduce administration costs by offering a subset of the ZAW and IntelliMirror
     functions slated for inclusion  in NT 5.0 after that OS's release, although those primarily interested in these
     features may find Win98's implementations to be superficial compared to those promised in NT 5.0.

Software Support

          OpenGL support (also present in Win95 OSR2)
          FAT32 (large disk support)
          WebTV for Windows

     Computer/TV integration
     Using DirectShow and other aspects of the DirectX  architecture from Microsoft, Win98 offers support for
     DVD and a number of video capture devices that improve the system's video prowess over that of Win95 or
     previous releases. We tested the online "G-Guide" (basically, an online version of TV Guide) with an ATI
     All-in-Wonder, which the OS provides direct support for. In beta 3, the documentation for the TV Tuner
     component claimed that the final release would be able to handle input from a VCR or DVD device. And sure
     enough, this feature is included in the retail version, although we couldn't get it to work reliably. In general, we
     found the ATI video input software much more reliable than Microsoft's.

Capture Hardware supported

The following capture hardware is supported by the DirectShow audio and video capture filters (as appropriate):

          Truevision TARGA 2000 Pro, DTX, and RTX
          miro Computer Products miroVIDEO DC30
          miro Computer Products miroVIDEO DC20 (Win95)
          Creative Labs Sound Blaster AWE32 PnP
          FAST Electronic AV Master
          Winnov Videum AV
          Connectix Color QuickCam
          ATI All in Wonder (and Pro)
          Intel Smart Video Recorder III

     As mentioned above, the ATI All in Wonder (and Pro) is currently the best supported TV tuner/capture card.
     For more info on DirectX and Win98 Multimedia, see Microsoft's DirectX website at

     Also, visit the HWDev website for info on   PC98 hardware specs.

What's Not in Win98

     The ability to send faxes, a function included in Windows 95, at first appears to be missing from Win98,
     although a careful examination of the CD reveals the old Windows 95 fax driver lurking in a directory
     appropriately called OLDWIN95. See our Tech Tips report for detail on this and other alternatives.
     At the Windows 98 launch on June 25, Windows product manger Brad Chase revealed that a couple of
     features will be added to the product in the Fall of 1998. One, dubbed Chrome, is an impressive, but
     processor-hungry technology for viewing web pages and other data in "3-D space." A more beginner-oriented
     feature is the Task Center, which will walk new users through tasks such as changing a screen saver, setting up
     a desktop theme, and so on.
     Automatic backup to registries, remote booting and network caching of users' desktops will not be supported in
     Windows 98, according to Phil Holden, product manager in Microsoft's Windows Platform Group. The
     operating system will support As well, Microsoft scaled back its early plans to include IntelliMirror in Windows
     98. The company now says that after Windows NT 5.0 ships, a future update to Win98 will provide "partial
     IntelliMirror support."
     AppStation and TaskStation policies now supported under ZAK in Windows 95.
     Although Win98 includes a personal web server, user profiles and new networking functions such as
     point-to-point tunneling (allowing the creation of virtual private networks), it lacks several of the advanced
     networking and security features of NT 5.

     Although some TV-related functions, such as the ability to download web site data from a TV broadcast, were
     not implemented in the publicly available beta 3 release, this feature is present in the retail release. Speedy it's
     not, though. But, considering that it can download Internet information without requiring the use of a phone line,
     or even an account with an Internet Service Provider, we doubt few will complain.

New installation

     Upgrading an existing Windows 3.x or Windows 95 system to Windows 98 for the first time is neither difficult
     not particularly risky. Windows 98, is not significantly different than Windows 95 OSR2 with IE4's "web
     integration" feature installed and enabled, and, if not for the unique "animated menus" and the version build
     number info in the lower right corner of the Win98 screen (which you can hide by turning on the "Active
     Desktop" feature), you might not realize you were using a different OS. (There are, however, minor differences,
     such as the different icons you see in the upper right corner of an explorer window when you are browsing the
     web vs. when you are viewing a local drive.) However, lurking behind this mostly-familiar facade are many new

Windows 98 includes support for

          Multiple monitors and/or display adapters (although early versions of the Win98 multi-monitor feature
          supported PCI adapters only, the final release also supports AGP, albeit with the restriction that an AGP
          card must be the secondary adapter.) Large hard drives
          (FAT32 wastes up to 28 percent less space on a 1.2GB drive)
          FireWire, USB (offering up to 12Mbps data rates -- up to 10 times faster than a standard serial port)
          and other new hardware
          Built in support for OpenGL and 3D accelerators (but OpenGL acceleration is disabled in multi-display
          environments -- bogus!)
          Internet Explorer 4.0's "Shell integration" feature. (This can be turned off with Microsoft's freely
          downloadable TweakUI control panel.)
          Color management features, scanners, OpenType, etc..

     Although speech command technology was rumoured to be part of the final release, it is not present. However,
     a number of third-party programs (we prefer those based on "NaturallySpeaking" technology from Dragon
     Systems) can add this capability. For more information, see our reports on Speech Technology:

     Talking to your Computer (Updated Jan. 2, 1998) - Continuous speech recognition that works.
     Speech Recognition in Q2 '98 - A "hands-off" product review created by dictating with a microphone.

     In this Installation & Orientation Guide, we'll help you to understand the new features "under the cover" and
     configure your system for peak performance. However, before we begin, for the sake of prudence and your
     peace of mind, here are a few things to keep in mind.

     1) Windows 98 takes approximately 225 MB of disk space for a typical installation (170MB minimum,
     although about 50MB of that is temporary space only). However, after installing and using a number of
     programs, your Windows folder can easily balloon to 400 megabytes or more. Don't configure your system
     with a boot partition that is too small. We'd recommend a boot partition of 500 megabytes of disk space on a
     fast hard disk for a "comfortable" installation. You can shoehorn it into systems with less free space, but most -
     if not all - of the extra goodies in the package are worth installing if you can spare the room.

     2) Memory requirements are similar to those of Windows 95 -- in other words, you should have 32 megabytes
     minimum for acceptable performance (16MB minimum). Windows 98 runs optimally on systems with 32 to 64
     megabytes of RAM, a fast hard drive and a Level 2 cache. Some features, like USB and ACPI support,
     require specific hardware, of course.

      3) Not enough disk space? Windows 98 includes DriveSpace3 disk-compression software for
     FAT16 partitions and can approximately double a disk's capacity -- useful on notebook computers
     and other systems where optimal performance is not the primary requirement. Note, however, that
     the uninstall option in Windows 98 that allows you to revert to your old OS isn't available on a compressed
     drive. The Windows 98 version of DriveSpace (pictured here) is the same as the one shipped with Windows
     95 OSR2. Windows 98 also supports the new FAT32 format which can recover 20 percent of the disk space
     wasted by FAT16 on drives larger than 500MB. We'll discuss FAT 32 and how it improves the inefficient
     cluster design of previous DOS versions later in this document. For now, the important issue is to note that the
     FAT32 format no longer supports compressed drives. DriveSpace has been updated to recognize FAT32
     partitions; it just doesn't let you compress them. So, if you have used DOS (version 6 or newer) or Windows
     95 to compress the data on your hard disk, you will not be able to enable the FAT32 feature for that drive.
     Fortunately, it is possible to set FAT32 on for some drives, and leave others as FAT16 or compressed FAT16.

     Compression Agent
     Compressing a Drive
     Scanning for applications incompatible with FAT32
     Selecting a drive to convert

     The best solution is to just go out and buy a larger hard disk (for a few hundred dollars, your dealer can add a
     second hard disk to virtually any computer).

     See also More info on hard disks.

     4) Assuming that you now have the required disk space, what about random access memory? Although
     Windows 98 will run - and we use the term "run" generously - in 12 megabytes of RAM, it really isn't something
     we'd advise. We strongly recommend upgrading to at least 32 (or preferably 48 or 64) megabytes of
     RAM before making the leap to Windows 98.

     5) If however, you are stuck with 16MB megabytes of RAM, think slim. Although a fresh installation Win98
     provides the same "Compact" installation option that existed in Windows 95, you won't see it if you upgrade
     your existing Windows 95 installation.You can, however, uninstall items you don't need via the Control Panel's
     Add/Remove Software option. You can also uninstall the Active Desktop and IE4 integration features using
     Microsoft's TweakUI control panel, to save RAM and speed things up a little. See also More info on RAM.

     GOLDEN'S WEBWATCHERS recommends....
     Windows 98 includes an option to save your previous DOS and Windows files, allowing you to uninstall it if
     something goes wrong. This option requires an additional 50 MB or so of "undo" space on your drive. Thus, if
     you have a Pentium 100 or better, 225 megabytes or more of free disk space and have at least sixteen
     megabytes of RAM, you are likely to have a successful and positive upgrade experience.

     Before you begin...
     We'd recommend that, before upgrading, you back up your important data.

     Based on the size of the OS, we think obtaining the version on floppy disks woulf be a bad idea. With prices of
     CD-ROM drives as low as they are, we'd strongly advise installing a CD-ROM before jumping to Win98 (or
     even venturing into a software store). In addition to its availability in Full and Upgrade versions on CD-ROM,
     some manufacturers supply Win98 pre-installed on systems.

     The Emergency startup boot disk that Windows 98 prompts you to create during its setup process contains a
     universal CD-ROM driver (supporting most brands of IDE and SCSI CD-ROM drives), making it easier to
     install or reinstall the OS as necessary. An uninstall option is also provided.

     Warning: Like Windows 95, Windows 98 does not include built-in anti-virus protection, although programs
     such as McAfee VirusScan 3.x work well with the new release (and, in fact, the optional Plus pack for Win98
     includes the McAfee VirusScan program). Thanks to its high compatibility with existing Windows 95 titles, we
     have not found compatibility problems with many apps, although there were a few applications (MacLAN
     Connect 6.1, QuickTime 2.x, Applica U2, ATI Turbo Drivers, etc.), that check for specific Windows version
     numbers that  caused problems.

     For more info on how to check for and safeguard against computer viruses, visit, or ask your dealer.

     Tip: copy the Win98 directory from the CD onto your computer's hard disk for added convenience and
     reduced setup times while you are setting up your system. When Windows 98 asks for the CD-ROM to load
     device drivers, etc., just browse to the location on your hard disk where you've copied the directory. You can
     always delete it later. A hard-disk-based installation takes only about 15 minutes, compared to 30-60 minutes
     for an installation from CD-ROM. It is best to uninstall the active desktop (web integration) option of IE4
     before installing Win98, although we have tempted fate by not doing this with no dire consequences. Users of
     the beta version of IE5 will see a dialog that strongly recommends uninstalling that product before attempting to
     install Win98. Follow that advice -- they're not kidding.

     Despite its high compatibility with Windows 95, an issue that's worth considering is the possibility that certain
     hardware and software you currently use might not work properly under Windows 98. We'll discuss several
     solutions to this problem - including one method that's 100-percent guaranteed to provide full compatibility, but
     we'd recommend that you make a list of any programs you simply have to use, and ask your dealer or local
     Windows expert if he or she knows of any incompatibilities related to that program and Windows 98 and, if so,
     whether an updated version or workaround is available. Fortunately, we've found only a few Windows 95 or
     NT4-compatible hardware devices with Windows 98 compatibility problems: so far, only the GVOX guitar
     interface and Applica U2 caused us problems, and only the latter product, a card and cabling system that
     allows two users to share one CPU, caused serious "blue screen of death" errors. A message on the Applica
     website ( says that Applica does not currently support Windows 98. The company
     says a free upgrade for Applica that supports Windows 98 will be available for download by August 1.

     Because Windows 98 supports the same drivers as Windows 95, chances are good that drivers for more many
     existing devices will work. Further, because Microsoft has distributed Windows 98 to the attendees at the
     WinHEC hardware engineering conference in April 1997, developers have had time to ensure that their
     products can be updated to take advantage of new Windows 98 features before its release. However, we
     strongly recommend that you use native Win98 drivers for displays, sound cards and other hardware whenever

     We had software problems with:
     MacDrive 95 (however, MacDrive 98 works well), MacLAN Connect 6.1, QuickTime 2.x (do we detect a
     trend here?).
     The taskbar icon for the Terratec EWS64XL sound card's mixer showed up partly off-screen, but otherwise
     worked well. As always, check the manufacturer's web site for an update if you encounter problems.

     See also More info on Upgrading.

     For the sake of brevity, we'll assume that you are familiar with the general process of setting up a PC and
     installing Windows 95; you will find Windows 98 almost identical. After reading the release notes and ensuring
     that your hardware is supported, make sure that all your system's peripherals are turned on. Insert the Windows
     98 CD-ROM or locate the appropriate directory on your drive and, if the Autostart function does not make the
     welcome screen pop up automatically, run Setup.

     If you attempt to install Windows 98 onto a hard disk or partition larger than 500 megabytes, it will ask you if
     you want to enable large disk support. This is the FAT32 option mentioned earlier. As the release notes
     mention, FAT32 is no faster than FAT16 and is, in some cases a little slower. On systems with partitions larger
     than 1.2GB, enabling FAT32 makes good sense. For maximum flexibility in the configuration of FAT16 or
     FAT32 partitions, we'd recommend Power Quest's Partition Magic 3.0. This product can even turn a FAT32
     partition back into FAT16 -- something Windows 98 is not normally able to do.

     The first thing Windows 98 does is check your system's hard disks for errors. We've found that, if you have
     certain types of removable storage devices, such as a magneto-optical or floptical drive, you might need to eject
     the disks before Windows 98's Setup will allow you to continue.

     Once the check is done, Windows 98 loads the so-called Setup Wizard, which will guide you through the
     installation procedure. If you're not familiar with the concept of these Help Wizards, let's just say you'll be
     seeing a lot of them in Windows 98 and related products.

Here is what you're likely to see during the Windows 98 Setup
Windows 98 Second Edition SetupTips

     1) Preparing to run Windows 98 Setup
     When the Win98 installer first runs, it checks the system for disk errors, etc. This takes several minutes. While
     these procedures are underway, a clock on the left side of the screen updates the estimated time left in the
     Setup procedure. The whole process usually takes 30 to 60 minutes.
     Then, a Setup Wizard runs, to guide you throught the rest of the setup process. It will prompt you to quit any
     running applications if necessary. - Next, the license agreement screen appears. Read it, then click OK.
     2) Collecting Information about your computer
     Setup initialized the systems' registry database. This takes about five minutes. It then checks for installed
     components and ensures that you have enough disk space. At this point, it aks you whether you want to save
     your existing DOS and Windows system files, so you can uninstall Windows 98 if necessary. This requires up
     to 50MB of disk space.
     The entire procedure requires about 150 MB of disk space, with some of the optional multimedia components,
     such as the TV tuner functions, pushing installation requirements to more than 170MB.
     Windows 98 then prompts you to prepare an Emergency Startup floppy. If you have trouble starting Windows
     98, this disk can be used to restart your computer or run diagnostic programs. By the way, this emergency
     floppy provides a new startup option: CD-ROM support (IDE only). This makes it easy to reinstall Windows
     98 (or another OS, if you prefer) from CD-ROM, if you can no longer boot up from your PCs hard drive.
     3) Copying Windows 98 files to your computer
     As the Setup Wizard is copying files to your hard disk, numerous pictures of grinning people of various ages
     and ethnic origins are shown while Windows 98 features are listed on the screen, such as the items shown here:

          System File Checker monitors your system files ---
       Scandisk checks your hard disk ---
       Windows tune-up scheduler fine-tunes your computer. ---
          Complex tasks are simple with new wizards and utilities ---
          Moving around is faster and easier -- just like on the Web. ---
          Enhanced Plug and Play makes adding new hardware easy. ---
          OnNow Power Management starts some computers instantly ---
          Your programs start faster FAT32 file system makes your hard drive more efficient. ---
          Enjoy High quality video and DVD content. ---
          Search for TV shows using the online Program Guide Receive video and broadcast content. ---
          Subscribe to Web content. View Web sites like TV programs ---
          Send email with Outlook Express ---
          Experience real-time video and audio with NetShow ---
          Share Web pages with Personal Web Server ---
          Stay current with the Web extension of Windows 98 ---
          Reduce complexity -- Updates are easy and automated ---
          Find answers fast with the latest product assistance,

     4) Restarting your computer
     After the files have been copies to your hard drive, Windows 98 restarts your computer, updating your
     configuration files. This takes a few minutes.
     5) Setting up hardware and finalizing settings.
     Warning: at least in some beta versions (e.g., build 1650) we tested, old device drivers from previously
     installed and removed hardware tended to foul up the system's plug and play hardware detection. Fortunately,
     the official release version seems to be better behaved. If the system crashes during Setup, restart by pressing
     F8 when you hear the "beep" at startup. Choose "Safe mode" from the menu that appears. Then, open the
     System control panel. Click the Device Manager tab and delete references to devices that are not on your
     system by clicking each name and then clicking the "Remove" button. If you are not sure, there is no harm in
     deleting a device driver that is needed. The system will detect the hardware and reinstall it, prompting you for
     the Windows 98 CD-ROM if needed.

    As the Windows 98 setup proceeds, it may encounter DLLs or other existing system software
    components newer than the ones you are about to install. It will ask you whether you want to replace
    or keep the newer item. We have tried both options. It appears that following its on-screen
    recommendations to keep the newer item does not cause any ill effects.

     Windows 98 Second Edition SetupTips

     Selecting the directory where you want to install Windows 98:
     You're given the option to install Windows 98 "on top of" your existing DOS and Windows installation, or, you
     may install it into a different directory.

     This choice of whether to replace your existing DOS and Windows or install Windows 98 to a separate
     directory is about the only really tough choice you'll have to make. Here are the pros and cons of each choice.

     Install to same directory

     Pro:You don't have to reinstall applications; system automatically migrates system settings and existing Program
     Manager groups; saves disk space.

     Con: If a program or hardware device isn't compatible with Windows 98, you are out of luck.

     Install to different directory

     Pro: guaranteed compatibility with all hardware and software; you can switch at will between Windows 98 and
     DOS/Windows 3.1 (etc.) simply by holding down the F4 key at startup time. Note that, if you enabled FAT32
     on the boot drive, this "dual-boot" option does not work without use of a third-party patch.

     Con:you have to reinstall all your applications; your old DOS/Windows directories and related files take up
     additional room on hard disk.

     On balance, we'd say that, for most users who are upgrading, it's a lot easier to replace the existing
     DOS/Windows. Moderately advanced users with new computers, where there are few, if any applications
     pre-installed on the hard disk, or users with new hard drives (especially large ones!) might gain some peace of
     mind from the knowledge that there won't be any programs that won't run on their systems, but for the average
     user, this level of sophistication--and the additional complexity that comes with it--may be overkill. For the
     record, we have several systems with both versions of Windows on them, and we seldom if ever have the need
     - or inclination--to switch back to Windows 3.1. However, the more likely you are to purchase "exotic"
     (non-mainstream/special-purpose) hardware or software, the more inclined we are to recommend the
     switch-boot option.

     Next, the system checks for installed components and checks to make sure there is enough free disk space.

     Tip:If the setup procedure freezes or crashes, try shutting off the PC, disconnecting peripherals and trying

     One compelling new feature of Windows 98 is its support for multiple displays, where each monitor can display
     different information. To use this feature, you must use Win98's display drivers (your primary display can not be
     AGP!). You should install Windows 98 with the primary PCI display adapter only, and then, once it is set up
     and working, shut down, add the second graphics card and monitor, and let Windows 98's plug-and play
     feature take it from there.

     For example, if you had a Matrox Millennium and an S3-based video card, you might start with only the
     Millennium card in the system. When Windows 98 has booted, shut down and attach the second video card
     and monitor. When Windows 98 re-boots, it recognizes the second card and presents a message that says "If
     you can read this message, Windows hasd successfully initialized this display adapter. To use this adapter as
     part of your Windows desktop, run the display applet from the Windows control panel."

     Unfortunately, if you do not see that message, it most likely means that your secondary adapter cannot be used.
     Try a different graphics adapter.


     During the installation process, you will be asked to identify your network protocol if the system detects a
     network card. It doesn't really matter if you choose NetBEUI, TCP/IP or some other protocol initially, you can
     configure others and add or remove items at any time.Windows 98 Second Edition Network.txt

     Tip: You can add an improved set of QuickView drivers to Windows 98 or Windows 95 system using Inso
     QuickView Plus or Adobe File Utilities. See the Tips section of our report on Win98 Setup for more
     QuickView details.

     Some users don't bother installing the items listed under "Accessibility options," but they have at least one useful
     function: the ability to make your system beep when you accidentally press the Caps Lock key. Just turn on the
     ToggleKeys" feature in the Accessibility control panel.

     Hopefully, the rest of the installation process will go as smoothly for you as it has for us. Most users agree that
     Windows 98 is quite simple to install and configure, at least during the installation process.

     When, at last, the installation is completed (as mentioned earlier, this takes between 30 and 60 minutes when
     installed from CD-ROM), the system restarts (perhaps more than once, depending on the options you choose)
     and, after a few screens that allow you to configure the time zone and various other options, you arrive at the
     Windows 98 desktop.

     If Windows 98 did not identify one or more device connected to your system, try installing a Windows 95
     driver, or refer to the Troubleshooting section.

Section 2
Important Startup commands

     F4 - if you chose to install Windows 98 to a separate directory than a previous Windows 3.1 installation on a
     system with a FAT16 boot disk, holding down F4 at startup time runs your previous version of DOS and

     F5 - bypasses your startup files and starts Windows 98 in "Safe Mode."

     F8 - allows you to choose from several startup options that affect the configuration and, in some cases, the
     mode your computer starts up in. Descriptions are provided on the (F8) Startup Menu screen, so we won't
     repeat them here, but the one you may find most useful is Safe Mode. An option that includes network
     services is also available.

     "Safe Mode" is useful for troubleshooting, or temporarily bypassing auto-starting programs or device drivers
     that may be causing your system to crash. If your system crashes or has another serious problem caused by a
     piece of software or hardware you've recently added to your PC, the system will automatically invoke Safe
     Mode, in order to allow you to remove or reconfigure the driver software.

     If all else fails, Win98 includes a set of standard CD-ROM drivers on the emergency floppy boot disk it builds
     during the initial installation process, making it a simple matter to reinstall components from CD in the event of a

     For more info, see Troubleshooting your System.

The Taskbar

     Although the standard Windows 98 interface is very similar to that of Windows 95 with IE4 installed (differing
     mostly in the way its drop-down menus "swing out" into position), most users will probably want to enable
     Win98's "Web View" and Active Desktop features, which provides a variety of user interface enhancements
     such as previews of graphics and HTML files, single-click file access and an overall "browser metaphor." When
     this option is enabled, Windows 98 has a very different look and feel than earlier Windows releases had. IE4
     users will already be familiar with the most prominent new feature: the enhancement made to the Taskbar along
     the bottom of the screen. You can add documents or programs -- or virtually anything else -- to the taskbar,
     and even configure multiple toolbars as you wish. Toolbars can be "torn off" and pulled into the middle of the
     screen where they become floating palettes, too. Click the right mouse button in the taskbar to see and
     configure the new toolbar options.

     Incidentally, if you absolutely don't want these features, and prefer Windows 98 to look as much as possible
     like Windows 95, you can uninstall the Active Desktop and IE4 integration features using Microsoft's freely
     downloadable TweakUI control panel. It also allows numerous other interface tweaks. You'll find it at

     Another change in the way the toolbars work is evident with a single click. Applications can be minimized or
     maximized with a single click on their taskbar icon. This single-click interface manifests in virtually all aspects of
     the IE4-integrated Windows 98 interface. (Unlike Win95+IE4, Win98 does not allow you to disable the IE4
     shell integration with the Add/Remove control panel). For more information on navigating the new interface and
     accessing Win98 features, see the Windows Help menu.

     The Task Bar is used for more than getting new users up and running, however. Microsoft says that, during its
     usability testing of Windows 3.1, it discovered that only 24 percent of experienced users switched between
     maximized applications with the Alt-Tab key combination (Alt-Tab still works, by the way). In Windows 98,
     the names of running apps show up in the Task Bar, which is visible (and movable) at all times. A single click on
     an application's name in the Task Bar switches to it.

     To move the Task bar to the top or side of your screen, click on it and hold the left mouse button down as you
     drag it to a new position. Note that you can also adjust its width by dragging to edge of it to be as wide or
     narrow as you like.

     Windows 98 also allows the default Task bar or any of your custom toolbars to be slid to any edge of the
     screen, or set to auto-hide. You can turn this feature on for the default bar with the Start menu's
     Settings:Taskbar... option. For custom toolbars, just right click in the toolbar and choose "auto-hide." You may
     need to select "Always on Top" before you can select the auto-hide command. Then, drag the bar to the
     position you want it.

Important Taskbar/Start Menu commands and shortcuts
Finding Files or Folders

     As with Windows 95, F3 is the Windows 98 shortcut for invoking the Find command (for finding files, folders
     or other information). But it works much better when the IE4 shell is enabled. the shell allows Find to remember
     the last directory accessed; without it, it defaults to whatever directory is currently active.

     Try this: Click on the Desktop and then press F3. Notice that the Find dialog that pops up defaults to
     c:\Windows\Desktop. This isn't a very useful place to begin searching, and may not find the item you're looking
     for (unless it is on the desktop or in a folder that's on the desktop), but it serves to illustrate how Find works:

     Find begins looking at the currently selected folder (directory). To make the current folder switch to the root
     level of your hard drive (so that the search will examine your entire disk), press Control-Esc and then tap "F"

     Control-Esc - as will undoubtedly notice, pops up the Start Menu. Tapping F-F calls the Find command, and
     then chooses the Find Files or Folders choice from the available find options. As you may have noticed, the "F"
     is underlined on the Find Command, as are various letters on virtually all other menu and dialog boxes
     throughout Windows 98; this is an easy way to tell what the shortcut keys for a given command are.

     Windows 98 returns a list of all files that matched any part of a name you type into the Find dialog's text box.
     You can also search inside documents for a specific text string (choose the "Advanced" tab and type the word
     you want to fin into the "Containing text:" field). Naturally, Find operations take longer when the contents of
     each file must be searched.

     Caution: if you move executable files or rename the folder a program is in, Windows 98 may be unable to
      find the program the next time you try to launch it.

     In other words, if you create a shortcut to an executable file and place it on the Windows 98 desktop, then
     rename the original executable, the shortcut will essentially be severed. With Windows 98's often-touted long
     filenames, we can imagine that many users will go gleefully renaming files and directories, unaware that they are
     severing shortcut after shortcut in the process. Suddenly, none of their applications work, and a computer
     expert must be called in to undo the damage. We can imagine that a Windows 98 upgrade without proper
     training and support could result in a tech-support nightmare for many businesses.

     Incidentally, Microsoft's TweakUI utility has been updated for Win98, allowing shortcuts to be created without
     the words "Shortcut to..." that annoyed so many Windows 95 users. You can also drag icons directly to or
     from the Start menu or its submenus - nifty!

Extra keys on the Microsoft Natural Keyboard

     A growing number of PC keyboards have special keys that enhance the way you can work with Windows 98
     shortcuts. Although some people (action game players and experienced web surfers, mostly) don't like the extra
     keys getting in the way of their favorite keyboard shortcuts, you many find them useful.

     The Start button on the on-screen taskbar is physically manifested as a Windows key on these special
     keyboards that, when pressed, switches to the task manager and pops up the Start menu to facilitate the
     launching of programs, documents, and so on.

     By holding down the Windows key and pressing another key, it can provide a system level shortcut. The
     shortcuts will be defined in the Help system, in the applications' menus, and so on.

     If you press the "Windows key," the Start menu pops up, with a list of available programs. Pressing the
     "Shortcut key"pops up a list of options that are normally available by pressing the right mouse button.
     Control-Escape or Tab-Enter will both duplicate the Windows key function via the keyboard. To simulate the
     Shortcut key from the keyboard, press Shift-F10.

     Windows 98, like Internet Explorer and Office 97 (etc.), supports the wheel on the Microsoft IntelliMouse, to
     enable scrolling of windows and documents. The Intellimouse wheel is especially useful when viewing
     documents in  Explorer. A click of the wheel places the document in smooth scrolling mode. Rotating the wheel
     or simply dragging the mouse up or down allows easy viewing of web pages, Word files and other documents
     in this fashion.

Customizing the Start Menu
  Right-click the Start Button to display additional commands.

    Open - this is the easiest way to customize your start menu by dragging items in or out of this window, which
     represents the contents of the Start Menu.

     Explore - similar, but not identical to the File Manager found in Windows 3.x, the Explorer allows you to view
     your directory structure hierarchically. Various options allow you to show or hide optional information, and sort
     the lists in various ways. See also The Explorer.

Section 3
Multi-function windows

     Icon in upper-left of any window (in Windows 3.1, this was known as the Control menu): Click this
     button to open menu commands for moving, resizing, or closing a window. However, using your mouse is a
     much faster and easier way of doing these things.

     Double-clicking this button is the classic Windows 3.x way to close a window, but you can also close a
     window by single-clicking the "X" icon in the upper right corner.

     Title bars: identify a particular window by name and if it is active by color. Windows 98 titles bars look
     different depending on whether you are in 256 color mode, or higher bit depths. In 256 colors, title bars look
     like the ones in Win95. However, at 16-bit depths and beyond, Win98 displays title bars with a color fading
     effect (you can customize the colors with the Display panel). You can Click and drag a title bar to move the

New Features

     Win98 includes several features culled from Microsoft's Plus pack. An optional setting allows the full window
     content to be redrawn when a window is moved. Icons can be displayed in high-color or standard mode, and
     fonts can be anti-aliased.  In Windows 95, all these features were provided by the Plus pack. Additionally,
     Windows 98 implements the updated Display control panel that first appeared in OSR2 that lets you optionally
     apply color bit depth and resolution changes without restarting.

     Here's how: Right-click on the desktop and select Properties from the pop-up menu. Choose the settings Tab
     to quickly get to the screen where you can adjust your color palette, screen resolution and font size. Note that
     you do not have to restart your computer to adjust the resolution, provided that the number of colors doesn't
     change. If you choose a resolution or color setting that your system doesn't support, Windows 98 will warn you
     the next time it restarts.

     These graphics changes, like numerous other features, were not part of the original Windows 95 release, but
     were included in the OSR2 version released in late 1996.

     Because most of the new functionality in OSR 2 was applicable only to 1996-or newer hardware devices, OSR
     2 was not available as a retail product or upgrade. Thus, owners of the original Windows 95a version are good
     candidates to upgrade to Windows 98, as Win98 includes the many bug-fixes that were available as separate
     patches for the Win95a release.

     Many of these OSR 2 patches and components are available for download from Microsoft's web site and can
     be added to the original Win95 release. All the following items (or newer versions) appear in Windows 98.

          Internet Connection Wizard
          Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0
          Personal Web Server
          Internet Mail and News
          DirectX 5.0 (including Direct3Da)
          ActiveMovie (now known as DirectShow)
          ISDN Accelerator Pack 1.1
          Unimodem V (Support for Voice Modems)
          MSN setup
          Kodak Imaging for Windows (provides basic TWAIN scanner support)

          Minimize button: clicking on the minimize button reduces the window to a TITLE in the taskbar
          (normally at the bottom of your screen). The desktop button in the lower-right corner of the IE4 shell
          minimizes all windows. As mentioned earlier, a single-click on its taskbar icon minimizes any window.

          Maximize/Restore button: clicking on the name of any window, program or document listed on the
          taskbar will fully expand the window. Clicking the middle icon in the upper right of the window that
          displays one rectangle will maximize that window. The icon then changes to two rectangles, symbolizing
          that clicking it will restore the window to its original size . Note that you can grab the taskbar and drag
          to make it larger.

          Clicking on the button in the upper right of most windows that shows n underscore symbol will minimize
          that window. You can minimize all windows by right-clicking in the Taskbar and selecting
          "Minimize all windows."

          Borders: click and drag on a border or border corner to resize the window.

          Desktop:is the area where you see the Recycle Bin behind PROGRAM MANAGER or an
          APPLICATION window. You can change the color of the desktop, or put patterns called Wallpaper
          there. To display the task list, press CTRL-ALT-DELETE.

          Scroll bars: let you view DOCUMENTS that are too big to fit in a window. Notice that the scroll
          bars are proportional; that is, they change size depending on how much data is outside the visible area.

          Program group icons: unlike Windows 3.x, PROGRAM GROUPS or folders can be put inside other
          ones in Windows 98. Double-clicking on one of these icons will expand it into a PROGRAM
          GROUP window.

          Program Manager and File Manager live: Did you know that the "classic" Windows 3.x Program
          manager and File Manager are alive and well in Windows 98? Yes, they're still available. Try selecting
          the Run command from the Start menu and typing PROGMAN or WINFILE.

          By the way, did you notice that the Run command now recalls the commands you've typed recently. Try
          pressing cursor-up or cursor down to see them.

          Program item icons: represent a software program or APPLICATION. Double-clicking a program
          item ICON starts the APPLICATION it represents. You may want to make a program item icon for
          a document you use regularly.

          Menu bar: is where commands and options are accessed. Clicking a word on the menu bar (or using
          the keyboard shortcut: alt + the underlined letter of a word on the menu bar) produces a menu of

          Windows 98 "View as Webpage" Preview icons:
          Although you may have noticed that you can view files on your hard disk by double-clicking the icon
          labeled My Computer and then double-clicking the icon for any of the drives on your system, but check
          this out:

          Open any folder and choose "As Web Page" from the View menu.Icons of GIFs, JPEGs, HTML files,
          etc. are now visible with preview icons.

          Here's another useful technique:
          · Right-click the Start button on the Taskbar. Select Open and have a look inside the folders you see
          here. Notice that you are viewing the Start menu as if it was a Program Manager, similar to that of
          Windows 3.1. You can arrange your Start menu easily by adding or rearranging files this way.

          · In fact, if you really, really miss the Windows 3.1 Program Manager and/or File Manager, they're still
          here! Click the Run button in the Start menu and type PROGMAN or WINFILE to access each one.

· Double-click on all program group icons to expand them.

· Click on Window of the Program Manager menu bar to activate its pull-down menu.

· Click on Tile. All program groups are now neatly arranged.

· Click on Options of the Program Manager menu bar to activate its pull-down menu.

· Click on Auto Arrange. This option will permanently keep all icons neat & tidy.

· Reduce the groups to icons by double-clicking on each control menu button.

          Menu headings: clicking a menu heading word will activate a menu of COMMANDS. To deactivate
          a menu, click anywhere else on the screen. Get in the habit of right-clicking on objects; often you'll find
          useful shortcuts or additional commands.

          Commands:are initiated by clicking on them. A check mark beside a command means that it is
          activated. Clicking on a COMMAND word that's followed by an ellipsis (...) produces a dialog box.
          A dialog box like the one below may have some or all of the following components.

          Command buttons: clicking on a command button initiates an action. The OK button closes the dialog
          box and initiating all options selected. The Cancel button closes the box with no changes registering.
          Command buttons with an ellipsis (...) will produce another dialog box.. Those with (>>) will expand the
          dialog box for more options. Dimmed text on a command button means it can't be initiated.

          Text boxes: are used to type in information for an action you want taken. The most common TEXT
          BOXES are for specifying what pages you want printed and for naming a document or file you want

          List boxes & Drop-down list boxes: are the same thing in that they provide a list of choices. However,
          to see the different choices in a DROP-DOWN LIST you have to click on the little button with a down
          arrow on it. Select a choice by clicking on it. Some DROP-DOWN LISTS provide so many choices
          that you have to use a scroll bar to view all.

          Check boxes: are on/off options. To turn an option on or off, click on the box or text beside it. An X
          mark shows it is on. A blank box means it is off.

          Radio buttons: provide you with one choice on how you would like a task to be carried out. For
          example, do you want all the pages in your document to be printed or just the ones you specify? Make
          your choice by clicking an empty circle or the text beside it.

          Window Management

          Proportional sliders

          Dragging the edge of any window in or out allows resizing from any side of the window.

          The Minimize button reduce windows to the window's name and a tiny icon in the Taskbar.

          Windows 98's Task bar provides a simple visual clue as to what windows are open: they are listed at the
          bottom of the screen (you can drag the bar to different positions). To open a minimized window, you just
          click on its name.

          Although Windows 98 supports file names with up to 250 characters, existing 16-bit PC programs
          generally don't, without resorting to 3rd party utilities such as Norton Navigator. Be careful if you are
          sharing files with users of DOS or earlier Windows releases. Although Windows 98 automatically
          translates long file names into shorter ones for compatibility with DOS, users will find that the translation
          process inserts strange numbers, exclamation marks, tildes as it truncates long file names.

          Tip:you can drag and drop a file with a long file name onto an old 16-bit application and, although the
          16-bit app can't read or write the long filename, Windows 98 automatically loads the right file into the
          app, and when you save, maintains the long filename intact.

          Other useful window management commands :
          Hold the shift key as you close a window and all windows belonging to that drive will close at once.

          Alt-F4 closes windows and applications (you can even shut Windows 98 down this way).

Section 4
Internet Explorer-Netscape Navigator

          Internet Explorer 4.0 - easter egg and all --  is an integral part of Windows 98 (it is even used for some
          functions if you elect to define Netscape as your default browser). IE4 includes an optional "Active
          Desktop" web integration shell enhancement that can act as a replacement for the often reviled File
          Manager in Windows 3.1 or Explorer in Win95 (which, as many Windows users are relieved to
          discover, joins the classic Program Manager as optional choices in Windows 98).

          Feeling nostalgic? Here's how to access the Classic File Manager and Program manager in Windows 98.

          Type the following into the Run command dialog (found in the Start menu) to launch File Manager or
          Program Manger, respectively:



          Other useful Taskbar commands (Right-click on the taskbar to access).


          Tile horizontally

          Tile vertically

          Minimize all windows.

Recycle Bin

          Recycle Bin is a special area where you put files intended for future deletion. If you change your mind
          about throwing them away, you can double-click it to open the bin, and drag them out again.

          One drawback: it makes all of your files appear as though they are in the same folder. You can delete
          files without putting them in this temporary receptacle by holding the Shift key while pressing Delete key
          or dragging the files to the Recycle Bin.

          Note also that you can right-click the recycle bin to access its Properties tab, where you can change
          settings such as Confirm Delete, the maximum percentage of your drive the Recycled files may occupy,
          or even turn off the Recycle feature altogether, so that Delete does just that.

          You can also turn off the "Are you sure you want to delte this item" prompt by unchecking the box in the
          Recycle bin's properties dialog.


          Shortcuts give you the ability to place drive icons anywhere on the desktop. Shortcuts can also refer to
          files in locations on other computers on a network , or even across the Internet.

          Dragging an executable file (e.g., an application such as a WordPad or a paint program) to another
          location by default makes a shortcut to the original file. Shortcuts have an arrow icon in the lower left
          corner of the icon.

          Various keys affect how dragging operations work:

          No keys held down, drag executable file: make shortcut

          No keys held down, drag non-executable file (documents, etc.):move original file to new
          destination on same drive; makes copy if destination is on a different drive.

          Shift key held down, drag any file: move original file to new destination

          Ctrl key held down, drag any file: make copy of file to new destination

          Note how the small symbol in the corner of a icon that's being dragged changes when you hold the
          various keys down.

Section 5
Windows 98 Help System

          Windows 98 provides an extensive and easily customizable Help system -- it's all based on HTML! You
          can use it to look up information on how the commands or functions of virtually any aspect of Windows
          98 work.

          Let's say, for example, you want to explore the help topics for WordPad, the word processing "applet"
          provided with Windows 98. Open Help by selecting the word Help from the Start menu.

          Then, try typing the first few letters of the word you want help on. Typically, this brings up all items that
          relate to it. For example, typing "W..O..R.." brings up a section on "word processing" immediately, and,
          below it, a section titled "WordPad, starting." Clicking a button labeled "Display" shows all entries
          relating to the chosen topic--some of which don't even mention the words "word processing" in their
          heading, but relate to the topic. In this case, Help produced two entries: "Writing and editing using
          Notepad" and "Writing and editing using WordPad." Clearly, indexed Help is superior to name-specific
          entries. Best of all, the user can open up the application, control panel, or print out the instructions, etc.,
          from directly within the Windows 98 Help system, further easing the learning curve.

Section 6
Customizing the Graphical User Interface

          Windows 98 allows user interface customization. You can add, move or remove items from the Start
          Menu (right-click the Start button to access the window that contains the Start menu items).

          To add items to the sub-menu that pops up when you invoke the "Send to" function (also available when
          right-clicking files or folders), Click on the Run.... item in the Start menu and type "sendto" to open the
          send to window.

          Note that you can open other folders--even hidden ones--by typing their name into the run command.

          Try adding a text editor such as Notepad or WordPad to the Send to submenu. If you have a third-party
          program or utility you want to conveniently send files to, (e.g., Zip and/or Unzip commands are
          commonly needed by modem users), you can put them in the Send to folder, too.

          Windows 98 has other possibilities for user interface customization, too.

          Let's say you have acquired a shareware program on your drive that Unzips files and now you want to
          add the Unzip command to the menu that pops up when you right-click on a Zip archive file. Here's how
          to add your own commands to this menu.
           1.Open a window
             2.Click on Options... in the View menu
           3.Choose the File Types tab.
           4.To customize the right-mouse button menu items, you can choose Edit... (edits an existing
               command or its icon), choose a New Type..., or Remove an existing one. Let's edit an existing
               one for a program that's already on your system. (Install the program if necessary). Choose Edit....
           5.A dialog labeled "Edit File Type" opens up. Near the bottom of the window, you'll see the area
               marked "Actions," typically containing a command like "open." To add the command "Unzip..." to
               the list of actions that appear on the menu of choices for handling Zip files, click New...
           6.In the area marked "Action:", type the name of the word you want to appear on the menu (e.g.,
           7.Next to the area labeled "Application used to perform action:", there's a Browse... button. Click it,
               locate the program you want to perform the action, and click Open.
           8.If desired, click the "always show extension" checkbox and close the edit file type dialog by
               clicking OK. You should now have a new command appear when you right-click on Zip archives!

          There are many additional possibilities and settings. See the Windows 98 help file for further details on
          this subject.

Section 7
Other Useful Commands

          Diskcopy - Select a drive (say, drive "A", press the right mouse button and choose copy disk.
          The rest is pretty self-explanatory.

          Copies of filename, files or disks can also be made using the copy and paste metaphor, also available in
          the right-mouse-button menu.

          Format -is a command that was often the bane of DOS users, with its complicated syntax and options.
          Here, you need only to click once on the drive you want to format (be careful!) and right-click to reveal
          the Format command in the right-mouse-button menu. Format supports 3.5" and 5.25" floppies, floptical,
          magneto-optical, Dual-Phase (PD) and SyQuest media, hard disks, and some other removable storage

          Uninstall -allows you to revert to DOS/Windows 3.x if you are unhappy with Windows 98.

          The Add/Remove Software Control Panel -allows you to easily install or remove "well-behaved"
          Windows 98 programs. Look here before attempting to manually remove a program.

Other commonly used features of Windows 98

          WordPad -is a fairly minimalistic word processor, with its tabs, ruler, graphics, alignment settings,
          search-and-replace and the ability to read and write Word 6.0, RTF and text documents. WordPad
          lacks advanced tools such as a spelling checker, though. If you regularly import and/or export files to
          share with users of other programs, you may find that you'll need a program with a more robust set of
          import and export filters, such as those included with a program like Microsoft Word. For day-to-day
          note-taking tasks, though, WordPad is a good choice--especially if your hard drive isn't up to the bulk of
          the 35 megabytes or so of disk space that today's "full-blown" word processors can occupy. See
          Adding programs to the Send To menu.

          Many home users like to have their computer(s) be able to talk to other computers via modem, and
          exchange documents. Home and business users alike make heavy use of such standbys as word
          processors and budgeting programs, but what other programs will you want to run? And, if you're like
          most users these days, you'd probably like to get into telecommunications a little bit more, too. There are
          more than a few PC owners who got a modem in their PC when they bought it, but have never used it....
          One of the things strongly in favor of Windows 98 is its excellent Internet connectivity. The Internet
          Explorer is approximately as full-featured as market leader Netscape's Navigator. IE4's offline browsing
          option certainly makes it one of the fastest Web clients currently available and Windows 98's built-in
          TCP/IP and dial-up services (the latter are updated from those in Windows 95), multitasking and
          multithreaded capabilities make it eminently suitable for online activities. See Configuring Windows 98
          for Internet Access.

Performance Tips

          Disk defragmenting - After a period of use, the data on your hard disk becomes fragmented. Use the
          Disk Defragmenter (Start menu:Programs:Accessories:System Tools:Disk Defragmenter) to reduce
          fragmentation and restore optimum disk performance. The Windows Tuneup Wizard can configure this
          and other optimizations automatically for you.

          It can schedule and run disk maintenance tasks automatically. IE4 also includes numerous scheduling
          features, allowing you to download pages -- or even entire websites -- at a specific time or date.

          A feature called the Windows Scripting Host (WSH) provides native side-by-side support for both
          JavaScript and Visual Basic Script.

          Checking your hard disk(s) for errors periodically is an important part of keeping your system in good
          running order. You'll find Scan Disk in the same area as Disk Defragmenter (Start
          menu:Programs:Accessories:System Tools:ScanDisk). We'd recommend running it regularly, at least
          once a week. Notably, ScanDisk will run automatically if you do not shut your system down correctly.
          Unlike the similar function in Win95 OSR2, Windows 98's ScanDisk doesn't bother asking you whether
          you want to save the useless file fragments it finds.

          Virus checking and system-level script writing were part of recent MS-DOS, but Windows 98 doesn't
          include antivirus tools, although the ones for Windows 95 still work. For proper anti-virus protection, be
          sure a virus checker specifically designed for Windows 95 or 98. See also Getting More Help.

Section 8
Hardware setup and configuration

          Anybody who's ever installed a multimedia upgrade kit, network adapter or other expansion card in an
          ISA-bus PC will surely agree that manually configuring IRQs and memory addresses is a big pain in the
          you-know-where. While Windows 98 isn't perfect at the PNP game, its support of Universal Serial Bus
          peripherals finally makes true plug and play reality. The ability to simply connect a USB scanner, mouse,
          joystick or printer (with the power on) and have the system automatically configure itself is a giant leap
          ahead of other PC operating systems at helping to minimize the hassles of adding or reconfiguring
          expansion hardware. PCMCIA (PC Card) peripherals and parallel-port Zip drives and tape backup
          units are also slickly handled by Win98, making it a good choice for portable computer owners.

          Memory handling
          Windows 98, like Windows 95,  handles resource memory much more effectively than previous versions
          of DOS or Windows, and now allows more applications to run without running out of system resources.
          Windows 98 can load and switch between far more applications running simultaneously than Windows
          3.x was able to handle.

          Running under Windows 98, hardware can potentially be as easy as "plug and play." A wide variety of
          plug and play expansion options are available. If an expansion card, printer, monitor, etc., is properly
          termed "plug and play" compliant, you simply install the device and turn the machine on. Windows 98
          recognizes the device, prompts you to insert one or more diskettes (or CD-ROM discs as the case may
          be), and that's it. However, in case things aren't quite that smooth....

          Solving Hardware Hassles
          First, try deleting the existing hardware driver from the System control panel's Device Manager tab and
          then running the Add New Hardware Wizard (found in the Control Panel). Win98's new System Info
          tool can help you find out which drivers are being used by a device.

          If it finds your hardware device, chances are good it will set it up correctly--a welcome change from the
          grief of installing PC hardware under DOS or previous Windows releases.

          Use Windows Update or search the web to look for a new device driver.

          If, after restarting, all is not well, see More Troubleshooting.

          Adding a hard drive, CD-ROM, or other storage device
          Despite occasional complexities, SCSI is a good way of adding hard drives, CD-ROMs, scanners, and
          other storage devices to your PC. Particularly on Windows 98, which includes the aforementioned
          plug-and-play support for most popular SCSI interfaces, SCSI is the easiest and most versatile way to
          add additional storage devices to your computer.
          See Mass Storage Devices

          Going Mobile
          Windows 98 is a nearly ideal operating system for portable computers: you can add PCMCIA (also
          known as "PC Card") expansion cards without needing "Card and Socket Services" drivers to be
          installed or loaded separately, and no config.sys or autoexec.bat drivers are needed. Windows 98 adds
          Cardbus support for the latest generation of PC Card devices. The system elegantly handles multiple
          telecommunications and network protocols, allowing modem and network cards (etc.) to be "hot
          swapped" in and out of most portable machines without turning the power off. PC Cards are, for the
          most part, truly Plug and Play.

          Windows 98 might even teach your portable or desktop computer a few new tricks. For example, on
          Compaq LTE series portables, AST Ascentia 900 series notebooks and certain IBM and Toshiba
          models, shutting down Windows 98 turns the computer off completely; on some other notebooks
          (Samsung NoteMaster, Toshiba Libretto100CT, etc.), Windows 98 will support an internal pointing
          device and a plug-in mouse simultaneously and can switch resolutions or color depths on an external
          monitor without rebooting.

          Tip:if your portable has an infrared port, Windows 98 will install an IRDA driver, which allows two
          IR-equipped portables to communicate via a wireless IR connection.

          PC Cards
          As mentioned above, you no longer need to have "Card and Socket Services," CD-ROM or Sound
          Blaster drivers, or many other types of drivers installed via Config.sys. If you see an entry in Windows
          98's Device Manager screen for a device in your computer, you can safely "REM" out any references to
          it in your config.sys or autoexec.bat files. Once you've done this, restarted and verified that the device
          still works as expected, you may safely delete the config.sys or autoexec.bat references entirely.

          We've seen an incredible demo where a Toshiba laptop connected to a docking station, reconfigured its
          network connection, recognized and established a new printer connection, and mounted a new hard
          drive, all without turning off the power. In another demo, an IBM PS/1 even turned itself off when
          Windows 98's "Shut down" command was used--a feature previously only available on some Macintosh
          models. (Some Compaq and AST portables also support this feature.) Even better, when the PS/1 was
          restarted, the applications resumed at the exact point they had been at before the shutdown. New ACPI
          PCs take the PS/1's Rapid Resume feature one step further -- they turn on and resume instantly and
          provide a "hibernate" mode as well.

          In fact, we tested Win98's "Windows update" feature by downloading a patch to the power management
          rotines that Microsoft says fixes a problem that could result in a blank screen after a portable PC wakes
          up from Suspend mode.

          Windows Update automatically queried Microsoft's website for updated drivers and installed the patch ( neat!)

Section 9
Problem Solving

          Windows 98, like Win95, has true preemptive multitasking only for 32-bit apps. 16-bit apps are
          multitasked cooperatively, which means that a single rogue 16-bit task (such as a Windows 3.1
          application) can still bring down the whole system. Fortunately, this happens much less frequently than
          was the case with Windows 3.x. When a task crashes under Windows 98, it brings up a box advising
          you that the task has performed an illegal operation and must quit. This almost never crashes the OS.

          Rarely, you may run into a situation where a task has stopped responding or may have has frozen the
          system. Pressing Control-Alt-Delete brings up a "task not responding" message in a Task Manager
          window, or more rarely, on a blue `crash page' screen. This screen will be familiar to Windows 3.1 users
          who are familiar with this key combination (affectionately known as the Vulcan Neck Pinch). It is also
          possible to end a task from the Task List window. Pressing Control-Alt-Delete brings up this Task List,
          making it easy to kill unwanted tasks.

          When you do crash, Windows 98 makes more technical information available than Windows 95 did, and
          the messages are more helpful to average users. As with Win95, this info is available by clicking on a
          button labeled "Details." Also, Win98 changes the behavior of ScanDisk which, as it does in Win95B,
          runs by default after an improper shutdown or crash. It no longer defaults to offering to save recovered
          data to a file. This found data almost never resulted in a usable file and served only to confuse and
          intimidate novices.

          Startup Problem Management:
          Windows 98 has a list of startup options that appears when you press F8 at startup. It includes an option
          for creating a text log of the boot process, and another that lets you step through the startup files one by
          one. We were able to start the Windows 98 GUI in "Failsafe mode" even after deliberately botching up
          system files that would have caused catastrophic problems under Windows 3.x.

          System File Checker, found in the Accessories > System Tools menu, can check for and repair damage.

          Other Windows 98 options include starting Failsafe mode with network support, starting only a
          command line, starting a command line while skipping all startup files, and starting the version of
          MS-DOS (if present) previously installed on the computer.

          Problems with Existing Software:
          In the time we've been testing Windows 98, we've only found a few pieces of software that appear to be
          incompatible. After upgrading to Windows 98, we could no longer uninstall QuickTime 2.1.1, nor
          upgrade it to the 3.0 version (it complained that a file called "qtml.dll" was in use). Miramar's MacLAN
          6.01 balked, saying it required Win95 to install (or uninstall). And Media4's MacDrive 95 also caused
          problems when attempting to read Mac disks.  Apparently, Win98's not done 'till Apple-oriented
          solutions won't run. (MacDrive 98 v2.02, however, worked properly.) If you don't use Macs in your
          office, you probably won't have any problems.

          Other than the above, hardware compatibility with our existing Win95 drivers was virtually flawless.
          Remember, though, to use Win98-native drivers if you want to use multiple displays.

          Windows 98 ran virtually all of our DOS apps without incident.

          Moreover, you no longer need to be able to use a text editor to gain control of your autoexec.bat and
          config.sys files, or the System.ini and Win.ini files. A System Configuration utility in the System
          accessories folder provides the ability to alter settings in any of these files with a simple click of the

          With it, we were able to REM out nearly everything in our CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files,
          which freed up extra memory (we found we had to leave a couple of lines in AUTOEXEC.BAT to
          initialize our Audiotrix sound card and to configure our GlidePoint touchpad, but that's about it). For
          what it's worth, we didn't encounter a single "out of memory" error during our tests of Windows 98. We
          tested Flight Simulator 98, CART Precision Racing, Test Drive 4, Need for Speed II, and several other
          recent titles that take advantage of DirectX 5.0 acceleration provided by Win98 and suitable graphics
          hardware. Microsoft says that about eight out of 10 DOS-based games worked properly in Win95, and
          we expect Win98 to be about the same. Yes, Quake II works.

          Windows 98's greatest improvements over Windows 3.1 are in this area. Windows 98 provides support
          for DVD, and with its integrated web browser and multimedia capabilities, provides easier access to
          program launching, resolution switching, window and network management, file opening, mouse
          functionality, and shortcut creation than its predecessors did.

          Windows 98 includes a smart update feature that can access the Internet to obtain and install system
          software and OS updates. Of course, having a modem and an Internet account is your best bet for
          obtaining almost-free tech support, bug-fixes, program updates and other information. It's the smart way
          to compute, these days.

          If existing DOS and Windows 3.x applications run under Windows 98, what advantages are there to
          upgrading to new 32-bit versions?

          Due to design limitations of Windows 98 (for a variety of reasons, most notably code size, performance
          and backward compatibility), DOS and 16-bit applications run under Windows 98 in much the same
          way they do under DOS/Windows 3.1 or Win95. The technical term is cooperatively multitasked, but a
          simple analogy is a single environment with several applications running in it. All of the applications,
          device drivers, etc., share the same environment, and so they must all get along. If one ill-behaved app or
          driver steps out of line, some or all of the others may be affected and the system can misbehave or crash.

          Tip:When you attempt to view the "Windows" directory of Windows 98, it hides the contents and
          advises you that moving or altering files can cause problems. A link below this message allows you to
          override this security and show the directory contents anyway.

          Like Windows 95, Windows 98 provides 32-bit applications with true pre-emptive multitasking, where
          each 32-bit app and device driver has its own separate, "protected" space. In this case, an errant 32-bit
          app cannot harm the rest of the system. It may be terminated without adversely affecting other portions
          of the system. As with Windows 95, 16-bit apps and drivers do not enjoy this memory protection.

          In addition, programs designed especially for Windows 95/98/NT can take advantage of special features
          of the new 32-bit APIs, providing features such as long filenames, direct access to the Windows 98
          Desktop from open and save dialog boxes (where you can rename, view and edit files), and/or other
          unique features.

          The WDM Advantage
          Microsoft is encouraging developers to make applications "Windows 98-and NT 5.0 compliant," by
          encouraging the use of so-called WDM (Windows driver model) drivers. These drivers are identical on
          NT5 and Win98, so presumably we will see many of them appear in the months ahead.

          Windows 98, like Win95 and NT4.0 or later, provides a registry editor called RegEdit (perhaps
          Microsoft programmers haven't noticed that they have more than eight characters to play with now),
          although it is a very complex tool, oriented toward the kind of users known for wearing propeller
          beanies. Usually, we use the Find command in RegEdit to locate and remove VXDs or other entries from
          incorrectly removed that are causing problems during startup time. Be careful, though -- you can ruin
          your system quite easily this way.

          Microsoft now includes an Uninstall Windows 98 function, to make it easier to restore a previous system
          configuration if you decide Win98 isn't for you. If you decide to keep it, you can delete the saved backup
          of your old OS using the Add/Remove Programs panel.

          Tip:if an application or device doesn't work properly, remove it using this panel, reboot and reinstall it.
          This fixes most problems quickly and esily.

          For best results - only buy software designed for Windows 95/NT or Windows 98 that provides an
          "Uninstall" option. Older programs, designed for 16-bit Windows are less stable and cause more

          You may ask, "I seldom do more than one thing at once. Do I need multitasking?"
          We think it safe to say that few users will ever want to go back to a non-multitasking OS after they've
          tried one that provides the benefits of printing, copying files, telecommunicating, formatting disks,
          networking, and so on, in the background. If you're like most users, you'll soon wonder how you ever
          got along without multitasking. And, if you're realy, really into multitasking, consider putting up with the
          extra hassles of Windows NT, which kicks Win98's wimpy little butt when it comes to serious
          multitasking and multiprocessing.

Section 10
Mastering the system

          Hot Tips
          You can change the application that launches automatically when you double-click a file by going into my
          computer -> Explore -> view -> options. Then, select the file types tab . Finally, set the file extension's
          association to the program you want to launch your files with.

          If, however, the program you want to open your files is part of Windows 98 (for example, getting Paint
          to be the one to open a BMP file after you've installed another paint application that seems to have
          appropriated the file format, here's how to do it. Open the Control Panel and run Add/Remove
          Programs. Uncheck the program (in our example, Paint) and click the Apply button. Then go back,
          check Paint, and click the Apply button again. All fixed!

          Accelerator keys
          If you have several windows that you have opened up, you can hold down the shift key and close the
          last one. It will close all parent windows as well Press Ctrl while setting your folder view saves the
          current folder view as the default view. In other words, if you hold down the CTRL key while you
          open up a new window from my computer it will not open up a second window (if the default is that it
          normally does).

          Ctl-dbl-click on a subfolder in "always open a new folder" mode in folder view will instead open that
          folder in-place (and similarly, if you're in "reuse the current window" mode, it will open a new window).
          very useful. <<

          in the Start menu's run dialog, type


          and press <Enter>

          This file has many great tricks and tips. Here's one of our favorites from the Tips.txt file, found in your
          Windows folder:

          Special Folders

          You can put the contents of Control Panel or other special folders on your Start menu (or in any folder).
          Create a folder by clicking New on the File menu, and then clicking Folder. Then, paste in the
          appropriate name as shown below:

          For                             Use This Name

          Control Panel Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}

          Dial Up Network Dial Up Net.{992CFFA0-F557-101A-88EC-00DD010CCC48}

          Printers Printers.{2227A280-3AEA-1069-A2DE-08002B30309D}

        To effectively manage FAT32 partitions use Power Quest's Partition Magic 3.02 or later. Partition
          Magic can convert FAT16 partitions to FAT32 and vice versa. To check FAT32 drives for errors (and
          repair them), use Symantec Norton Utilities for Windows 95 version 2.0 or later.

          Tip:Use Partition  to increase the amount of root directory entries available.


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